3rd Phase (1979–1981)
1979 The "Turkish problem" becomes the subject of a media campaign: Increased coverage in popular press; attacks on Turkish and Asian or African refugee living facilities reaches its high point.
The "[Heinz] Kühn Memorandum":
Recognition of West Germany as a country of immigration; rejection of "Temporary Integration" policy.
Steps taken toward permanent integration:
– augmentation of (pre)school integration
– naturalization options for young people
– community voting rights for foreigners from EU member countries
1979–1981 Re-emigration remains less than immigration (predominantly amongst rejected applicants).
1980 Naturalization rate is at 0.9% of foreigners resident in West Germany for ten years or more; 0.1% of Turkish foreigners naturalized.
Sources: The webpage of the Bundesbeauftragte für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration: http://www.integrationsbeauftragte.de/. Hisashi Yano, "Migrationsgeschichte," in Carmine Chielino, ed., Interkulturelle Literatur in Deutschland: ein Handbuch (Weimar: Metzler 2000).