2nd Phase (1973–1979)
Immigration limitation, promotion of return, temporary integration in society.
1973–1980 Reduction of foreign workforce by 20%, from 2.6 million to 2.1 million. Rise in immigrant resident population by 12.3%, from 3.5 million to 4.5 million.
1974–1976 Economic crisis: Displacement attempts through the restrictive implementation of work permit procedures and discrimination in the provision of unemployment benefits: reduction of foreign workforce and high unemployment amongst (primarily Turkish and Yugoslav) migrant workers.
1975 Regional regulation of foreign workers introduced in order to disencumber municipalities with immigrant populations of more than 12%.
1977 Regional regulation suspended because it infringes upon the free movement of EU immigrants.
1977–1980 Increase in foreign workforce from 1.9 million to 2.1 million. Number of Greek and Spanish immigrants sinks: heavy re-emigration. Number of Turkish and Yugoslav immigrants rises, both amongst workers and non-workers (families joining earlier immigrants).
Sources: The webpage of the Bundesbeauftragte für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration: http://www.integrationsbeauftragte.de/. Hisashi Yano, "Migrationsgeschichte," in Carmine Chielino, ed., Interkulturelle Literatur in Deutschland: ein Handbuch (Weimar: Metzler 2000).